Shark Teeth Fossils


Sharks have been around for more than 400 million years but the only thing that they leave behind are their teeth. Their skeletons are made up of cartilage and easily erode over time, but their teeth are made up of a substance akin to our own bones, making them more durable to the decay of time.

Unlike any other animal, sharks "shed" their teeth continuously to make sure they stay nice and sharp and do not succumb to wear and tear. Some species of shark will shed as many as 35,000 teeth within their life time. With this natural process, sharks' teeth are relatively easy to find, you just have to know where to look for them. You can find them just walking along the current beaches but you can also find them inland considering the land masses that exist today are very different then what they would have looked like 400 million years ago. Considering that you can find them further inland if you dig down deep enough, or happen to find a prehistoric rock bed that has been exposed due to erosion, construction or quarrying. You can even find them in places you would not even consider, such as Missouri as it used to be an inland sea billions of years ago and well into the time when sharks came into the picture.

Contrary to popular belief, these teeth are not actually petrified, they are exactly the same chemically as when the shark dropped them millions of year ago. They are preserved through various processes that cause fossilization of bone material through time. When you find a sharks tooth, it may appear worn depending on how much it has been moved via waves or natural water flow such as a river flowing downstream. Sometimes you can find teeth that are perfectly preserved but they are typically fragile, unfortunately. One of the most notorious places to find sharks teeth is known as the Bone Valley in Polk County, Florida. Commercialized vessels and fisherman used to dredge the bottom of this phosphate mine and bring up megalodon teeth, until it was banned.

Fossilized sharks teeth is a fascinating hobby that is sure to thrill both yourself, your friends and your family. There are even Shark Teeth Festivals where you can display your finds and mingle with other fossilized shark teeth enthusiasts. Who would not cherish a relic of time?

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Best DNA Testing - Get the Results You Need

In recent years, DNA testing has become increasingly popular in the fields such as family law, criminology, biotechnology and biomedicine. One of the main reasons for this is because it's possible to ascertain biological lineage as well as genealogical links from the test to help settle any disputes which arise amongst family members regarding estate matters. By using the best DNA Testing Lab, this can also help to solve crimes since criminals will be identified from the evidences discovered at the crime scene.

The things required for this test will be a single hair strand or some semen, blood, saliva or any other biological substance. In most cases, people will request this test in order to establish with a higher level of conviction whether or not they are the true biological father or even mother of a child. However there are many reasons why someone would need to make use of this testing method, so in order to determine the best DNA testing to use this will depend on several different factors.

It is important to note that this kind of testing is possibly the most accurate methods around that could be utilized for identification purposes due to the nature by which results will be extracted. In the end it will boil down to the actual biological scientific fact which cannot be disputed due to the higher level of accuracy.

What makes DNA Lab Testing Accurate?

This kind of genetic lab testing will be extremely accurate since it involves the DNA. Generally speaking, the human DNA strand will be our distinctive identification number. For this reason, you will not find two people with the exact genetic make-up. Of course, there are genetic commonalities between children and their biological parents, but the children will still have their unique genetic features. This will be the ideal solution to identify persons in certain situations since there is such an advanced level of conviction involved once the DNA is tested.

Are there are different types of testing tools?

In order to figure out what would be the best DNA test, first one has to understand the different types available as well as how they are different from one another.

Home Collection Kits

These home testing kits could be used for identifying biological connections to parents, but they may not give accurate results. There are basically too many variables and room for mistakes during the testing process.

Testing Centers

All of these facilities will have the required professionals and equipment to carry out different DNA tests and give accurate and definitive results. These testing centers can be used for many testing purposes, but they are often used during child custody disputes and various other court proceedings.

In terms of which one will be the most accurate, of course the testing centers will be clear winners since they have the equipment, expertise and technology available to carry out tests with the maximum level of accuracy.

When it comes to getting the best results and figuring out what is the most effective DNA test, the genetic samples have to stay in a state that is totally uncontaminated. This can give the most accurate final results which could be used to give a solid conclusion in accordance with the evidence. If the evidence is corrupted, then it will not be good and could give results with error.

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Phthalic Anhydride


Phthalic anhydride is the catalyst for oxidation and dehydrogenation.

It's colourless, aromatic chemical solid, which forms needle shaped crystals. The chemical starts to solve at a temperature of 131°degrees and changes over to gas state at 256° degrees. The majority of phthalic anhydride is used for the production and plasticizers, especially PVC. As an important synthetic resign resource the chemical bond is utilized for the surface coating of wood, for the manufacture of copper phthalocyanine in the beta crystalline form and synthetic resin. The chemical bond of phthalic anhydride is also only an important chemical component for producing colorants. Colour pigments produced with phthalic anhydride are remanufactured in dispersions, artistic colour or in finish.

PVC flooring and colorants are manufactured with these.

What makes these chemical so special? Some of the clever chemical ranges where colour production to the synthetic fusion in PVC. The organic compound is essential for subsequent processing of industrials goods. The comfortable catalyst plays an important role when producing synthetic materials such as industrial plastics like PVC. PVC is a very flexible material when creating further material for flooring and the coating of records, for example. The large-scale production of plasticizers is ` still growing industry, who annually keeps on growing. The chemical bond is often used in industry because organic chemistry has shown that the versatile immediate is bifunctional and cheaply available. The Certain dyer are produced with the help of the chemical bond such as synthetic dyer and solvent dyer. Phthalic anhydride is not also cheap in production, it was long known as a secret ingredient to famous artists when manufacturing exclusive and expensive and expensive colours.

The pure colours of phthalo blue or green are manufactured with the help of these chemical. When producing the anthracite copper phthalocyanin, the complex combination of copper and phthalic anhydride leads to a special chemical reaction. This partial chemical process of colour production has been known for 1000 years around Europe and Asia, when distilling the extracts for exclusive colours used for expensive paintings.

Nowadays, the still growing industry of producing phthalic anhydride is a very successfully business. According to recent statistics, the success story of the chemical bonds continues: In 2002, approximately 4.6 billion kilograms of phthalic anhydride were produced.

For security reasons: The product can cause allergic reactions and should treat with caution. It provokes eyes, skins and the mucous membrane. So always be careful!

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Potassium Nitrate and Its Hazards

Potassium nitrate is one of the useful chemicals in modern-day implements such as fertilizers, soaps, toothpastes, explosives, pyrotechnics and even the emerging biofuels that is currently gaining ground as an answer to the world's environmental problems. However, despite its numerous benefits, this chemical substance can be hazardous and can wreak havoc on human health if handled improperly. As with other dangerous chemicals, handling this compound should incorporate utmost knowledge and safety to minimize the health risks it may bring. Here are some of the possible health hazards and some tips on how to avoid them.

Potassium nitrate could be dangerous if its vapors are inhaled. Such vapors can be present when the chemical compound is exposed to combustion, such as in the case of pyrotechnics, fireworks or even lighting matches. Inhalation of the vapors may cause coughing fits, difficulty and shortness of breathing, nasal irritation, sore throat and inflammation of the respiratory tract.

It is best to avoid exposure to the vapors completely to be free from such respiratory ailments. However, in cases where exposure cannot be avoided, the next best thing is to have appropriate safety gear such as face masks that inhibit entry of vapors to the user's nasal area. It could be in the form of gas masks which is more apt for heavier, industrial-grade exposure, but an inexpensive mask that can be bought in pharmacies can be adequate enough to filter out the chemical's emissions.

Working with this compound can also make the eyes and skin prone to contact. Contact with potassium nitrate with the skin and eyes will likewise cause pain and irritation, swelling and redness. Be sure to wear gloves and appropriate safety clothes when the job calls for exposure to this chemical. Should eye and skin contact occur, immediately wash the affected area with clean water. Flush the eyes immediately with cool, clean water and contact a physician immediately. You can also apply first-aid solutions such as medicinal eye drops upon advice by a health professional while waiting for medical assistance to arrive in order to mitigate the pain and irritation.

Potassium nitrate is also very dangerous if ingested. It could upset the gastrointestinal tract and will cause vomiting, nausea and diarrhea. Again, it is best to contact a poison expert or professional medical help to save the patient. The doctor may advise to induce vomiting to let the toxins out of the system, depending on the gravity of the case.

The most dangerous exposure to potassium nitrate is prolonged, continuous exposure. This causes long-term medical ailments affecting the stomach, as well as will cause irregular heartbeat, breathing difficulties, convulsions, comatose, and even death. With such dangers of being exposed to this chemical, the importance of safety gear especially when working with it on an industrial level cannot be overemphasized. The right safety gear, together with the proper training and knowledge will be the only way to reap the benefits of potassium nitrate and negating its health hazards.

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Reproduction in Fungi


If you are interested in Botany then you will like to know the fascinating characteristics of fungi. Their simple structure and complex style of reproduction make them one of the most varied eukaryotic organisms. Fungi can be found in any sort of habitat, and to be exact, they are ever-present in their distribution. As a student of biology, you must know the characteristics and facts about fungi. The branch of biology which refers to the study of fungi is known as mycology.

Some recent studies have concluded that these organisms have more similarities to animals, than plants. However, some people still argue that fungi are plants. Let us look at the facts that make them more like animals than plants. Studies have shown that these organisms lack chlorophyll (the photosynthetic pigment) and they depend on other organisms for food. Their main function is that they decompose the dead organisms, and thus, clean the environment to make it a suitable place for other living entities to survive.

The fungi have quite a flexible mode of reproduction, and this is also much responsible for its vast occurrence everywhere. Let's for example consider the process where fungi reproduction takes place through the formation of spores. These spores are actually quite light in weight, and they diffuse easily from one place to another through various mediums like water, air, or other agents. When they get favorable conditions for reproduction, the spores germinate and build up to form a new fungus.

You will be surprised to know that there are over 100,000 species of fungi present and scientifically identified. Mushroom is an exclusive example of fungi, and it has both edible as well as poisonous species. Some of the other known types of fungi are rusts, yeast, mold, etc. The reproduction process in the organism takes place asexually as well as sexually. They are distinguished with respect to the spore variety and sexual reproduction strategy.

Their asexual reproduction is more commonly observed than sexual ones. Almost all types of fungi are capable of reproducing asexually. This is responsible for the extensive distribution of this organism. At one time, nearly millions of spores are released, and when they find a suitable environment, they reproduce to form new fungi. Different types of asexual reproduction take place in fungi, and they are known as spore formation, budding, fragmentation, and fission. If you are interested to learn more about them but are unable to get you answers in a classroom, you can consider hiring a private biology tutor.

Properties and Uses of Silicon Dioxide

If you are a chemistry student then you must be familiar with the element known as Silicon Dioxide, but are you aware of its various uses. You will be fascinated to know that this chemical element has several uses in everyday life include heavy duty industrials. In this article, we will give you a briefing on the different characteristics and uses of this element.

It is interesting to note that the element Silicon (Si) is not found in its original form. It is always dependent on a second element for its existence. Hence, you will always find an oxidized form of Silicon Dioxide, known as silicon dioxide or SiO2. If you wish to see it, you can visit any sandy place as there you will find silicon dioxide in abundance. It is also found in quartz form as well as diatoms. All these are the naturally occurring forms. In our day to day life, we find various forms of silicon dioxide, or silica that are generally known as silica gel or silicic acid.

Interesting facts about Silicon Dioxide:

When exposed to high temperatures, without any external factors, silica turns into glass form. This amazing property of the element to turn itself into glass is used to create a variety of glass objects.

There are several benefits of using silicon dioxide in food. The very presence of this element in food helps to strengthen our bones and joints. Those who regularly consume silicon dioxide rich diet, maintain good strength and density of the bones, reducing any risk of arthritis or osteoarthritis.

As we know silica exists in sand form, it is used in the ceramics industry. It is one of the chief constituents of ceramic glaze. Without it, other ingredients may not be able to fasten themselves. This is so because silica has the unique property of turning to glass when heated. It helps in keeping the other substances together.

This element is also used in the telecommunication sector. In this field, silica is used in the form of optical fibers, which are prepared from this element.

The unique properties of silica make it highly useful in the manufacturing of cement. Hence, it is largely helpful in construction industry.

The purest form of silica is used in manufacturing electronics, particularly micro-electronics. The chips are organized and implanted in electronics to check and adjust the level of electrical activities within the electronic item.

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Discover The Practicality Of Agronomy Science

Agronomy impacts the lives of every single person on the planet, every single day. From the first cup of coffee you drink to the salad you eat at lunch to the gas you funnel into your car to the clothes you wear to the medicines you consume, all are products of agronomy science. Suffice to say, the varied and abundant sources of agronomy products indicate there are good career opportunities for agronomist scientists.

Agronomy is concerned with the evolution and ongoing development of agriculture processes, as aided by scientific applications. Using the expertise of other agricultural science disciplines such as crop science, soil science, and environmental science, scientific research is conducted for the purpose of enhancing agricultural productivity. Research is shared among agronomists and other professionals in related fields for use at the local, regional, national, and international levels.

These scientists are plant and soil scientists who work to improve crops and agricultural productivity, as well as control pests and weeds in the process. Agronomists achieve their objective through the application of soil and plant sciences to crop production and the incorporation of natural resources and preservation practices to generate food, fuel, fiber, and pharmaceutical crops. All of this is done while maintaining and improving the environment.

Agronomists work mainly in the field, consulting with farmers or conducting research on the land. When not in the field, they work in research laboratories. Agronomists may specialize in a particular area of concentration. For example, one might fare better at developing methods of growing wheat, while someone else may specialize in preventing soil erosion, and another might be skilled at combating crop diseases or pest infestations.

Agronomists have many career paths to choose from. A great many of those with doctoral degrees work in research and/or teach in the college and university environment. The government utilizes this field within the U.S. Department of Agricultural (USDA), offering management positions to those with advanced degrees for the USDA Agricultural Research Station. Some also work in a consultant capacity, providing services to agribusiness companies.

Science majors interested in pursuing the field of agronomy must obtain a Bachelor's degree in the field or in a related field of study such as soil conservation, agriculture education, or general agriculture. Graduate and Doctoral degrees are typically necessary for some advanced positions. Generally, at least one college in each state offers a degree program related to agriculture.

The median salary for an agronomist is currently little over $51,000 per year; however, scientists in this field who work in government positions can earn an average of over $73,000 per year. Job opportunities for these experts are expected to grow through the year 2014. This demand will arise out of the need to replace workers leaving the field; therefore, those holding advanced degrees will have more success securing positions.

Agronomy is a part of daily life. A career in this field keeps you in the center of efforts to increase the production of fuel, food, and fiber for a growing world. If this sounds like your area of interest, research the various colleges and universities, both campus-based and online, that offer a degree program in this fascinating field. If you are one who prefers to earn an online college degree, rest assured knowing that it is possible to obtain a Bachelors online.

Unicellular Organisms

In Biology, the unicellular organisms actually refer to the living entities that have just a single cell, and all the functions are based on them. Some of the unicellular organisms are paramecium, amoeba, bacteria, and cyanobacteria. As a student of biology, you will be taught about these organisms in the class. However, sometimes, it might not be easy to get the topics cleared in a classroom setting. The reason is the large number of students and just one teacher to answer their queries. If you are interested to gain in-depth knowledge in these topics or you wish to take up a career in this field then it is recommended that you opt for the private home tutoring services. A professional home tutor will be able to answer all your queries and help you gain proper knowledge of the subject. In this article, we will discuss regarding the functions of the unicellular organisms.

In terms of the cellular structures, the assortment of organisms is so wide that it becomes tough to understand them all. Some of the organisms are known to execute all the functions within one cell, while there are others that are made up of millions of cells. It is interesting to note that a human body is actually composed of nearly 50 to 75 trillion cells. This fact is astonishing when compared to organisms that have just a single cell.

In biology, unicellular organisms are defined as single celled organisms, where one single cell performs all the functions such as locomotion, feeding, expelling wastes, reproduction, and many more. In most cases, these organisms are microscopic and cannot be viewed with naked eye. Depending on the complexity of the cell structure, the unicellular organisms can be classified into two different types, known as prokaryote and eukaryote. The former one is quite a simple cellular structure, as compared to the latter. The prokaryotic unicellular organism is free of any cell nucleus, while the eukaryotic unicellular one has a nucleus in the cell.

Most of the microbes are unicellular in association. As per the theory of evolution, these organisms were the first to grow on Earth. Their history dates back to nearly 3.8 billion years ago. Each of the organisms has definite characteristics that help them in adapting to the wide variety of environmental conditions.

If you find this part of Biology fascinating, and wish to learn in details about the various organisms then you can take up this subject as your major. You can also consider hiring a private Biology tutor to help you understand their functions with real examples.

Exothermic Reactions


If you are having problems understating the exothermic reactions then you have come to the right place. You will find that every little change that occurs in nature is actually due to the energy change. Energy is that quantity which takes different forms, and the kind of change is actually triggered by a flow of energy. As a student of chemistry, you will learn about the different kinds of chemical reactions. The chemists have actually found that the exchange of heat is always accompanied by a chemical reaction which can be classified as per the kind of energy or heat change.

The motive force that comes into play in every change that takes place in the universe can be credited to some kind of energy alteration. When you carefully observe the world revolving around you, you will realize that all types of environmental and biological changes that take place can be accredited to the chemical reactions that are powered by the subtle inputs as well as outputs of energy.

Though you may not be clear about the concept of exothermic reaction, you must certainly felt its effect in your day to day life. In simple words, an exothermic reaction is the one that is accompanied with a release of energy. The term 'exo' refers to outside; and 'thermic' means heat. When split in this way, it becomes easier to understand its meaning. The crackling fireplace provides heat, because explosion is an exothermic reaction releasing energy in the type of heat and light.

As you know there are various forms of energy, the emission of energy may make itself evident in the form of heat, light and sound. There are several kinds of chemical reactions in the nature, which are of exothermic character. Each of them is accompanied with a rise in temperature as heat is emitted to the surrounding area.

Since the heat energy is emitted through the chemical reaction, there is a boost to the entropy of the whole system, down with a decline in enthalpy that is associated with it. Nature actually prefers low energy states, and thus the energy release is quite essential in some chemical reactions to achieve stability. Some of the real life examples include combustion of gasoline in the car engines, corrosive reactions such as metal oxidation, burning of any matter in air, rusting of iron and so on. If you are looking for more details then consider hiring a private home tutor.