Oxidizing Agents

If you are a Chemistry student then you will be familiar with the terms like atomic structures, isotopes, halogens, and oxidizing agent. To understand what an oxidizing agent means in the world of science, it is important to delve deeper into its definition, examples and properties. Many times students find it confusing to understand the aspects clearly. In such bases, you can always seek help from the private science tutors. In this article, we will discuss about an oxidizing agent.

According to the scientific definition, oxidizing agent is a chemical compound that conveniently transfers atoms of oxygen; and in a redox chemical reaction, it gains electrons. It is also identified as an oxidizer or oxidant. Thus, it can also be cited as a chemical substance which voluntarily transfers oxygen atoms and gains electrons in a state of redox chemical reaction.

Several studies have allowed scientists come to the conclusion that oxidizing agents usually pair with the reducing agents that are substances that gain electrons in a state of redox reaction. There are also several claims that prove that they may be known as oxygenation reagents due to its property of transferring oxygen-atoms in a particular reaction. The basic of oxygenation is very simple; and most metal and non-metals get oxidized to a particular point of magnitude.

Furthermore, the properties of these agents also state that the atoms in a certain molecule can be simply assigned an oxidation number. Now, this oxidation number changes consequently when an oxidant happens to act on a certain substrate. Thus, in a state of redox reaction, there is the possibility for the oxidation numbers to alter under the reacting circumstances.

Some of the common oxidizing agents include Oxygen (O2), Chlorine (Cl2), Iodine (I2), Fluorine (F2), Ozone (O3), Bromine (Br2), Chlorate (CIO3-), Nitric Acid (HNO3), Dichromate (Cr2O72-), Hypochlorite (OCI-), Chromate (CrO42-), Manganate (MnO42-), and Chromium Trioxide (CrO3). Many of the above mentioned chemical compounds have properties that are strong, while others are simply the best agents in a chemical reaction. Thus, the agents need to be assorted in different categories.

The molecules, ions, and atoms that have astonishing affinity of electrons, act like good oxidizing agents. For example, fluorine (F2) is recognized as the strongest one in the group. This is because the elements like metals, asbestos, quartz ruptures into flames in the presence of fluorine. To know more about the strong agents and their characteristics, find a Chemistry tutor near your home today.

Linear Motion System

Linear motion is the most basic of all motions. Objects that are not subjected to external forces will progress uniformly in a straight line permanently. Linear Motion is the movement along a line or length of area. Linear motion can be uniform at a constant speed, or non-uniform with fluctuating velocities (non-zero acceleration). The motion of an object along a line can be described by its position (x), which differs with the amount of time (t). Linear motion is sometimes called rectilinear motion.


A cam follower system is a system/mechanism that uses a cam and follower to create a specific motion. The cam is in most cases merely a flat piece of metal that has a shape or profile machined onto it. This cam is attached to a shaft which enables it to be turned by applying a turning action to the shaft. As the cam rotates it is the profile or shape of the cam that causes the follower to move in a specific way. The movement of the follower is then transferred to another mechanism or another part of the mechanism.


Actuators are devices that put the Linear motion system into automatic action. Actuators are used in a wide variety of applications, from industry machines producing products to computers starting up. Whichever type of actuator you need, there are several different types that can help you achieve putting things into motion. Shapes and styles distinguish actuators by use. There are three types of linear actuators, including basic, compact, and rodless cylinders. Both the basic and compact cylinders are best used when needed for a individual or dual action. Rodless cylinders are best used for long stroke applications in magnetic or mechanical systems. Another type of cylinder is the guided cylinder. This will provide a more stable precise movement that will eliminate bending.


Roller Slides, sometimes called crossed roller slides,are no motor linear slides that provide high precision linear movement for equipment powered by inertia or by hand. Roller slides are based on roller type bearings, which are frequently crossed to provide heavy load capabilities and more precise movement control. Roller Slides are mainly used in industries such as manufacturing, medical and telecommunications, and are versatile,with the ability to be adjusted to meet multiple applications which typically include clean room, vacuum environments, material handling and automated machinery. Roller slides work similar to ball bearing slides, except that the bearings are cylinder-shaped instead of ball shaped. The rollers cross each other at a 90 angle and move in between the four parallel rods that surround the rollers. The rollers are between "V" grooved bearing raceways, one being on the top and the other at the base. The travel ends when it meets the end cap. Typically, bases are constructed from aluminum and the rods and rollers are constructed from steel. Ball bearing slides are the most common type of linear slide. Ball bearing slides offer smooth precise movement along a guide rail, aided by ball bearings housed in the base,for increased reliability. Ball bearing slide applications normally include robotic assembly, cabinetry, high-end appliances and clean room settings, which primarily serve the manufacturing industry. For example, a widely used ball bearing slide in the furniture industry is a ball bearing drawer slide. Linear motion systems play an integral role in all of our lives and will continue to be important as we explore robotics and other technological advancement.

Microtubules Function

Biology is an interesting subject as it deals with the various characteristics of living entities. As a student of biology, you will be introduced to the study of cells. It is both interesting and complex at the same time. Many times students find it difficult to understand every aspect of cell structure in a classroom instruction. In such cases, you can seek help from a professional biology tutor who can help you understand every aspect of the cell structure and the various functions. In this article, we will discuss about the function of microtubules.

Microtubules are known as one of the most significant constituents of cytoskeleton of a cell. The diameter is 25 nanometers, and the length varies between 200 nanometers to 25 micrometers. The microtubules usually serve as the structural constituents within a cell and they take part in diverse cellular processes which are important for the existence of a cell. This process involves cytokinesis, mitosis, and vesicular transport.

In cytology, you will learn about the structure of different cell components. The microtubules are basically polymers of α and β tubulin dimmers. In the case of protofilaments, the tubulin dimers polymerize from end to end. After that, the protofilaments create bundles of void cylindrical filaments. Typically, they must organize themselves in an inadequate helix, where one turn of the helix comprises 13 tubulin dimers, each of which is from a dissimilar protofilament. Another prominent characteristic that helps in microtubules function is its weird polarity.

Now, let's find out regarding the function of microtubules. In mitosis, the process is assisted by a subgroup of microtubules, which are known as the astral microtubules. They usually originate from a centrosome, which do not attach to a kinetochore. The astral microtubules usually build up in the actin skeleton, and they interrelate with the cell cortex to help in direction of spindles through cell division.

They are usually organized around centrosomes in the form of radial arrays. The astral microtubules functions in cycle with the specialized dynein motors, which are leaning with the light chain section attached to cell membrane and the vibrant portion attached to microtubule. This further allows for the dynein contraction to pull centrosome near the cell membrane, thus supporting the cytokinesis in plants and animals.

These microtubules function as the conveyor belts inside the cells. They help in the movement of granules, vesicles, and organelles such as mitochondria and chromosomes. There are many such interesting facts regarding cell structure and the various functions of the components. You can consider hiring a Biology tutor to help you gain an in-depth knowledge.

Organic Chemistry

Organic chemistry is an important part of Chemistry that deals with the carbon containing compounds. Though quite interesting, students sometimes find it difficult to understand the concept clearly. If you need extra help outside classroom instructions then you can consider seeking help from a private Chemistry tutor who specializes in the organic branch. In this article, we will discuss about the diverse properties, composition, structure, behavior and the changes that a matter undergoes under different conditions.

As already stated above, organic chemistry deals with the compounds containing carbon. This branch of Chemistry deals with the structure, naming, synthesis and composition of the carbon compounds; and its studies their behavior when reacted with other substances. The best illustration is that of glucose which is identified with the chemical formula C6H12O6. Though carbon is the fundamental element of study for this sub-branch, a compound which doesn't contain hydrogen is not organic. To further give you a clearer idea, let me tell you that carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide are not organic compounds.

While studying this fascinating branch of science, you also come to known about the significance of the chemical bond that is formed between hydrogen atom and carbon atom. However, an organic compound may also comprise of other elements. In the past, it was believed that the compounds that are derived entirely from living organisms are organic. However, later in the 19th century, the manmade organic compound discovered by scientists was a major milestone.

If you are interested in the subject and you wish to take up a career in this field then you must learn the basic facts about it. Those who specialize in organic chemistry are known as the organic chemists. This sub-branch is used for various purposes, and almost all macromolecules present in living organisms are organic compounds. You find carbon as well as hydrogen in the formula of proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. The list of organic compounds includes plastics, plant fertilizers, clothing, and the products that are supported by fossil fuels. This implies that imagining life without the organic compounds is not possible.

According to the scientific reports, there are over six million organic compounds found on earth. In these products the amount of carbon compounds is much higher than the remaining compounds, all combined together. Thus, this is an essential and important branch of Chemistry that has several applications in real life. An expert Chemistry tutor help you get a clearer understanding and guide you to take up a career in this field.